Beta

Rahlfs 943

Jerusalem, Israel Antiquities Authority, 8ḤevXIIgr.
s. I (BCE) | Leather scroll (various fragments, belonging to one or two scrolls), var. ff., 355 × 120 mm  ca. 355 × 100–120 (text area: 270 x 100 mm  ca. 270 × 80–100), 25–26 col.  23 + 2 cols. preserved, var. lines per page. |  Majuscule. | Scribes: A  Medium-sized, somewhat uneven script, almost entirely single-lined, only Phi with ascender, the descenders of Rho, Psi and Phi not very distinct, no word division, initial letters enlarged when the scribe resumes the writing, numerous ornamental elements, but set and executed with varying density, hooks frequently running out to the right at the descenders as well as in the Iota; the nib is relatively thick, but hardly any differences in stroke width; towards the end of a column written somewhat more crowded than at the beginning, orthography regular, but a few times change ι–ει, abandonment of assimilation for final nasal; final Ny also before consonants; nomen sacrum spelling: Tetragrammaton in Paleo-Hebrew script, probably written from left to right. Cf. Fraenkel:2020, 157, B  Large, upright script, mostly single-lined, except for Rho and Phi, both above the line and with clear descender; hairlines and shadowlines clearly distinguishable; numerous decorative elements, at the descenders of Rho and Phi alternating between nodules and hooks running out to the left; orthography regular, final Ny also before consonants; nomen sacrum spelling: Tetragrammaton in Paleo-Hebrew script, clearly differently formed than in the preceding part; it is not possible to determine whether it is contemporaneous or added later. Cf. Fraenkel:2020, 157. | Provenance: Naḥal Ḥever, Cave 8. The largest part of Hand A was sold to the Rockefeller Archeological Museum by looters between 1952–1954. Wâdi Seiyâl was named as the place of discovery. In 1961, during an archaeological excavation led by Yohanan Aharoni, the largest part of Hand B was found in Naḥal Ḥever, Cave 8. In both finds there were fragments of the respective other hand. In 2019, small additional fragments were found during an excavation of the Israel Antiquities Authority in Naḥal Ḥever (cf. Riestra:2022).
XII proph. fragm. | Tetragrammaton written in Paleo-Hebrew script (cf. Eidsvåg:2013). Two different hands. According to Fraenkel, the question if the two hands and their fragments belong to one or two original scrolls cannot be answered with absolute certainty. However, The assumption of two scrolls is much more plausible (cf. Fraenkel:2020, 159). Other scholars like Tov, and recently Riestra, have argued for one scroll (cf. Riestra:2022, 7, n. 18). The arguments for two scrolls are, in my opinion, more convincing: The leather which has been used differs. The first part (Hand A) is written on thin, finely tanned leather with a smooth surface, originally probably of a light, yellowish-brown colour; the individual leaves are joined together by gluing. The second part (Hand B) is written on somewhat thicker, also less yellow, worse smoothed leather; the individual leaves are sewn together. Complete length of the scroll(s) must have been ca. 10 meters (cf. Tov:1995, 7). | Collation: Albrecht | Text-type: καίγε.
Content
Ion.1:14–2:3; 2:4–2:7a; 3:2–3:5; 3:7–4:2; 4:5 Hand A
Mich.1:1–1:8; 2:7–2:8; 3:5–3:6; 4:3–4:5; 4:6–4:10; 5:2(1)init.–5:7(6) Hand A
Nah.1:13–1:14; 2:5–2:10; 2:13–2:14; 3:3; 3:6–3:17 Hand A
Hab.1:5–1:11; 1:14–2:8; 2:13–2:20fin.; 3:8d–3:15 Hand A
Soph.1:1–1:6; 1:13–1:18; 2:9–2:10; 3:6–3:7 Hand A
Zach.1:1–1:4; 1:12–1:14; 1(2):19(2)–1(2):21(4); 2:3(7)–2:5(9); 2:7(11)–2:8(12); 2:12(16)–3:2; 3:3–3:7; 8:16–8:17; 8:19–8:21; 8:23; 8:23–9:5 Hand A: 1:1–1:4; 1:12–1:14; 1(2):19(2)–1(2):21(4); 2:3(7)–2:5(9); 2:7(11)–2:8(12); 2:12(16)–3:2; 3:3–3:7; Hand B: 8:16–8:17; 8:19–8:21; 8:23; 8:23–9:5
Bibliography
Barthélemy, D.: Redécouverte d’un chaînon manquant de l’histoire de la Septante, in: RB 60 (1953), 18–29.
Gunnar M. Eidsvåg, “The Paleo–Hebrew Tetragram in 8ḤevXIIgr,” in: JSCS 46 (2013): 86–100.
Treu, K.: “Referat ‚Christliche Papyri‘ 1940–1967,” in: APF 19 (1969), 169–206, 179–180.
Turner, E. G: The Typology of the Early Codex, University of Pennsylvania Press 1977 (Haney Foundation Series 18), OT 189A.
van Haelst, J.: Catalogue des papyrus littéraires juifs et chrétiens: Publications de la Sorbonne, Série «Papyrologie» – 1, Paris 1976, Nr. 285.
Wevers, J.W.: “Septuaginta–Forschungen,” in: ThR 22 (1954), 87–138. 171–190, 136–138.
Wevers, J.W.: “Septuaginta–Forschungen seit 1954,” in: ThR 33 (1968), 18–76, 66–76.
Catalogue
Fraenkel, D.: Verzeichnis der griechischen Handschriften des Alten Testaments von Alfred Rahlfs, Bd. I,1, Die Überlieferung bis zum VIII. Jahrhundert (Septuaginta, Vetus Testamentum Graecum auctoritate Academiae Scientiarum Gottingensis editum. Supplementum I/1), Göttingen 2004, 22020, 156–160.
Editions
Barthélemy, D.: Les devanciers d’Aquila (VT.S. 10), Leiden 1963 (with 2 plates) (editio princeps (completely)).
Lifshitz, B.: The Greek Documents from the Cave of Horror, in: IEJ 12 (1962), 201–207 + plate = Yediot 26 (1962), 183–190 (Hebrew) (editio princeps (partly)).
Lifshitz, B.: The Greek Documents from the Cave of Horror, in: The Judean Desert Caves, Archeological Survey 1961, Jerusalem 1962, 183–190 (Hebrew).
Riestra, B., et al., “These Are the Things You Are to Do.” A Newly Discovered Fragment of the Book of Zechariah from the Greek Minor Prophets Scroll (8ḤevXIIgr), in: Textus 31 (2022), 159–189 (new fragments).
Tov, E.: The Greek Minor Prophets Scroll from Naḥal Ḥever (8ḤevXIIgr.). The Seyâl Collection I (DJD VIII), Oxford 1990, 21995 (standard edition).